Translation Tools for Programming Languages:


A significant portion of the applications software used in a business requires programming or customization. The languages used to create computer programmes are referred to as programming languages. The sets of instructions that make up a computer programme can be created by a programmer or end user using a programming language. These languages, which have developed over four generations, fall into five broad categories:

1.Machine languages


  1. Languages for Assembler


  1. Advanced lingua franca


  1. Fourth-generation language systems


  1. Languages that use objects


Scripting Languages:


The most fundamental level of programming languages are called machine languages. They belonged to the first group of machine languages.


Machine language drawbacks include:


  1. To create programmes, binary codes specific to each machine have to be used.


  1. Programmers needed to be thorough understanding of how the particular sort of CPU they were utilising operated internally.


  1. Programming was challenging and prone to mistakes


  1. Programs cannot be transferred to different machines.


Languages for Assemblers:


The second generation of machine languages includes assembler languages. They were created to make creating machine language applications less challenging. In addition to being a low-level language (referring to machine resources like registers and memory addresses), assembly language is also model- or family-specific.


An assembler is a straightforward translator that converts an assembly language programme into machine language. Assembly languages are used today only when tight control over computer hardware resources is required, such as in certain systems programs, particularly those for real-time computing.




  1. Uses instructions with symbolic code, which are simpler to remember


  1. Programming is made simpler because the precise location of data and instructions in storage is not necessary.


  1. The high expenses of very laborious system development and the lack of application portability outweigh efficient utilisation of computer resources.



  1. Particular computer types only support assembler languages.


  1. Programs cannot be transferred to different machines.


Superior Languages (procedural)


The third generation of programming languages are high-level languages. These languages offer statements, each of which is converted into a number of instructions in machine language. High-level languages include FORTRAN (used for scientific and engineering applications), COBOL (for business application programmes), BASIC (for end users of microcomputers), and C, C++, and Visual Basic (which are currently more common).




1.Instructions (statements) that mimic human language or the accepted form of mathematics make it simpler to learn and comprehend than an assembler language.


  1. Have fewer strict rules, forms, and syntaxes to minimise the chance of error.


  1. Because high-level language programmes are machine independent, they do not require reprogramming when a new computer is installed.


  1. For each machine that they programme, programmers do not need to learn a new language.



  1. Less effective than programmes written in assembly language and taking longer for the computer to convert into machine instructions

High-Level Programming Languages and Beyond


Instead of describing how to do something, fourth-generation languages (or 4GLs) explain what needs to be done. There are numerous programming languages in 4GLs that are

conversative and less procedural than earlier languages.




  1. Made the programming process easier.


  1. Use nonprocedural programming languages that enable users and programmers to express the results they want, with the computers deciding on the order of instructions to carry out those results.


  1. Employ natural languages with loose grammatical norms.




  1. Not as adaptable as other languages


  1. Not as effective (in terms of processing speeds and amount of storage capacity needed).


A number of languages could lay claim to belonging to the fifth generation. The following types of programming languages are likely to influence the development of such a new paradigm:


  1. Object-oriented programming (OOP) languages tie data elements and the procedures or actions that will be performed on them, together into objects. Examples include Java, Visual Basic, Smalltalk, C++, Turbo C++, and Object C+


  1. Languages that make it easier to process data in parallel on systems with numerous processors.


  1. Functional languages, such as LISP, which are founded on the idea that computation is an application of functions in mathematics


  1. The small number of natural language subsets that can be processed as a result of advances in artificial intelligence



  1. Programming the graphics-focused user interface needed by many apps is made simpler and more effective by OOP languages.


  1. Reusable objects created through programming.



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